Distance Multimedia: 4 score & more

Analog Era of Video Conferencing

1920's

1927: Herbert Hoover TV demonstration

Photo of television equipment. Photo of Herbert Hoover using television. Photo of men watching television demonstration.

telephone switchboard

Telephone Switchboard

1960's

Picturephone: NY World's Fair 1964

1964: AT&T Picturephone at New York World's Fair

1969: Picturephone issue of Bell Laboratories Record

Image:First-arpanet-imp-log.jpg

1969: First ARPANET message

1970's

ARPANET logical map, March 1977.

1973: Network Voice Protocol (NVP)

1974: Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program

4ESS

4ESS (digital) telephone Electronic Switching System

1982

ARPANET TCP/IP 1982

1982: ARPANET transition to TCP/IP Internet

H.120 Codec

1982: ITU-T (formerly, CCITT) Recommendation H.120: "Codecs for videoconferencing using primary digital group transmission"

1982: Compression Labs T1 codec

Circuit-Switched Era of Video Conferencing

1984-1989

4,686,698 Fig. 1

1984: DataPoint MINX analog video network. See USP 4,686,698 and USP 4,847,829

PictureTel C-2000 codec

1986: PictureTel C-2000 Switched-56 system

G.722 Figure 3

1988: ITU-T (formerly, CCITT) Recommendation G.722: "7 kHz audio-coding within 64 kbit/s"

Luther D.V. in the PC Environment cover

1989: Digital Video in the PC Environment

1989 Group Systems Revenue $67M, as reported by TeleSpan

1990

H.221 channels

ITU-T (formerly, CCITT) Recommendation H.221: "Frame structure for a 64 to 1920 kbit/s channel in audiovisual teleservices"

H.261 Figure 1

ITU-T Recommendation H.261: "Video codec for audiovisual services at p x 64 kbit/s"

ITU-T Recommendation H.320: "Narrow-band visual telephone systems and terminal equipment"

Group Systems Revenue $101M, as reported by TeleSpan

1991

CACM April 1991

Communications of the ACM Special issue on digital multimedia systems

Intel/PictureTel/IBM DVI alliance: "Picturetel and the International Business Machines Corporation were working with the Intel Corporation at its Princeton, N.J., laboratory to develop a multimedia chip that will make desktop video-conferencing cost effective."

ASG Comdex 91

Andy Grove "The Second Decade: Computer Supported Collaboration"

PictureTel revenue $78M, net income $6.0M

Group Systems Revenue $133M, as reported by TeleSpan

1992

SoundStation

Polycom SoundStation

MBone session

MBone video for IETF meetings

http://brl.ee.washington.edu/publications/Rep127/images/FigBH7.jpg

CU-SeeMe first operational.

ITU-T Recommendation G.728: "Coding of speech at 16 kbit/s using low-delay code excited linear prediction"

Henning Schulzrinne A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications (RTP initial draft)

Starfire

SunSoft Starfire

PictureTel revenue $141M, net income $10.7M

Group Systems Revenue $245M, as reported by TeleSpan

1993

ITU-T Recommendation H.243: "Procedures for establishing communication between three or more audiovisual terminals using digital channels up to 2 Mbit/s"

Satellite Network

ITU-T Recommendation H.331: "Broadcasting type audiovisual multipoint systems and terminal equipment"

VideoServer MCU

VideoServer OEM MCU

PictureTel revenue $176M, net income $8.4M

Group Systems Revenue $314M, as reported by TeleSpan

1994

ProShare

Intel ProShare & Personal Conferencing Work Group (PCWG)

Generic Streaming Model

Starlight

PictureTel revenue $255M, net income $4.6M

Group Systems Revenue $596M, as reported by TeleSpan

1995

C-Cube CLM4200 H.261 codec

IIT VCP System

IIT Video Communications Processor (VCP)

VideoServer Continuous Presence

VideoServer Continuous Presence

Vivo 320 (H.320 on Pentium)

IMTC and PCWG merge

Real Player

RealAudio

PictureTel revenue $347M, net income $20M

Group Systems Revenue $729M, as reported by TeleSpan

1996

ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1: "Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications transmitting at 5.3 and 6.3 kbit/s"

ITU-T Recommendation G.729: "Coding of speech at 8 kbit/s using conjugate-structure algebraic-code-excited linear prediction (CS-ACELP)"

ITU-T Recommendation T.120: "Data protocols for multimedia conferencing"

DataBeam MCAT et al

ITU-T Recommendation H.263: "Video coding for low bit rate communication"

ITU-T Recommendation H.324: "Terminal for low bit rate Multimedia Communication"

ITU-T Recommendation H.323: "Visual telephone systems and equipment for local area networks which provide a non-guaranteed quality of service"

PictureTel invests in Vivo

ViaVideo founded

VivoActive (video streaming on Pentium)

Schaphorst

Videoconferencing and Videotelephony: Technology and Standards

PictureTel revenue $490M, net income $32M

Group Systems Revenue $719M, as reported by TeleSpan

Internet Era of Video Conferencing

1997

Intel Pentium MMX (MultiMedia eXtensions)

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), based on 1996 Session Invitation Protocol and Simple Conference Invitation Protocol

RealVideo

RealVideo

PictureTel acquires Multilink (later became part of Avaya)

NetMeeting

Microsoft NetMeeting 2 with H.323

VTEL acquires Compression Labs

Philips TriMedia processor

IETF Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP)

Mainstream Videoconferencing

Mainstream Videoconferencing: A Developer's Guide to Distance Multimedia

PictureTel revenue $466M, net loss $(32M)

Group Systems Revenue $684M, as reported by TeleSpan

1998

ISO/IEC standard MPEG-4 introduced

Schu9902_Internet

Schulzrinne et al
Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)

H.332 Figure 1

ITU-T Recommendation H.332: "H.323 extended for loosely coupled conferences"

RealNetworks acquires Vivo

ViewStation

Polycom acquires ViaVideo & introduces ViewStation

PictureTel acquires Starlight

MeetingPoint_telemedicine_screen.jpg

White Pine MeetingPoint "soft" H.323 MCU

PictureTel revenue $406M, net loss $(56M)

Polycom video systems revenue $56.1M

Group Systems Revenue $734M, as reported by TeleSpan

1999

PictureTel revenue $323M, net loss $(85M)

Polycom video systems revenue $126M

Group Systems Revenue $657M, as reported by TeleSpan

2000

ITU-T Recommendation H.248: "Gateway control protocol" / IETF Megaco Protocol

Accord licenses Ezenia! patents ($6.5M)

PictureTel divests Starlight

Polycom acquires Accord Networks

PictureTel revenue $245M, net loss $(107M)

Polycom video systems revenue $215M

Group Systems Revenue $686M, as reported by TeleSpan

2001

Intel Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 introduced in Pentium 4

Motion Media H.324 ruggedized systems used in "by videophone" news coverage from Afghanistan

Polycom acquires PictureTel

PictureTel revenue $???M, net loss $(???M)

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $???M

Group Systems Revenue $614M, as reported by TeleSpan

2002

H.263 included in Macromedia Flash MXvideo.google.comyoutube.com

TANDBERG purchases Ezenia! patents

Forgent divests VTEL

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $???M

Group Systems Revenue $612M, as reported by TeleSpan

2003

ITU-T Recommendation H.264: "Advanced video coding for generic audiovisual services"

Texas Instruments TMS320DM642 processor

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $???M

Group Systems Revenue $571M, as reported by TeleSpan

2004

Intel Streaming SIMD Extensions 3 introduced in Pentium 4

CodianMCU4200

Codian MCU 4200

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $420M

Group Systems Revenue $610M, as reported by TeleSpan

2005

ITU-T Recommendation H.239: "Role management and additional media channels for H.300-series terminals"

Polycom Siren contributed to become ITU-T G.722.1 "Low-complexity coding at 24 and 32 kbit/s for hands-free operation in systems with low frame loss"

LifeSize Room

LifeSize Room

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $423M

Group Systems Revenue $671M, as reported by TeleSpan

2006

Cisco TelePresence Meeting

CiscoTelePresenceMeeting

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $469M

Tandberg revenue $420M

Group Systems Revenue $710M, as reported by TeleSpan

2007

BT: "Will 2007 be the year of video conferencing?"

TANDBERG acquires Codian

Intel Streaming SIMD Extensions 4 introduced in Penryn

Polycom combined video and network systems revenue $586M. See Wainhouse February 7, 2008 Dollars & $ense

Tandberg revenue $631M

Group Systems Revenue $1,038M, as reported by TeleSpan

2008

The Year of Video Conferencing

Polycom revenue reaches US $1B, more than 2/3 video

Tandberg revenue US $809M

Cisco provides minimal H.323 interoperability

Group Systems Revenue $1,259M, as reported by TeleSpan

2009

"Video Conferencing" D.O.A.?

Cisco to aquire Tandberg

Skype sale and interoperability

Logitech Acquires LifeSize

Polycom revenue declines US $102M to $US 967M (US $699M combined video solutions + services revenue)

Tandberg revenue increases to US $903M

Group Systems Revenue $1,273M, as reported by TeleSpan

2010

Looking Back at Mainstream Videoconferencing

Unified Communication Interoperability Forum

"When will they ever learn?"

Group Systems Revenue $1,425M, as reported by TeleSpan

2011

increments of learning (attrition)

Polycom Buys HP's Halo Videoconferencing Unit

Microsoft acquires Skype

Group Systems Revenue $2,061M, as reported by TeleSpan

2012

Avaya acquires RadVision

Lies, Damned Lies and
VideoConferencing? Telepresence? Exuberance Expectations

2013

It looks like it's a-dyin' an' it's hardly been born

Copyright © 2008-2013 Charles H. Sauer. All rights reserved.